ANSI Z26.1 96th Edition, December 1, 1997
Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment Operating on Land Highways - Safety Standard
Additional Comments: **FOLDOUTS**, ALLOW 1 DAY FOR PRINTING
Published By:SAE International (SAE)
(This foreword is not part of American National Safety Standard Z26.1-1996.)
The American National Standard Safety Standard, Z26.1-1938, was developed by a sectional committee, national in scope, functioning under the procedure of the American National Standards Association and under the joint sponsorship of the National Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters (now the American Insurance Association) and the National Bureau of Standards. It was the first of several separate standards to be developed within the scope of Standards Committee Z26 on Specifications and Methods of Test for Safety Glazing Materials. That scope is as follows:
Specifications and methods of test for safety glazing material (glazing material designed to promote safety and reduce or minimize the likelihood of personal injury from flying glazing material when the glazing material is broken) as used for windshields, windows, and partitions of land and marine vehicles and aircraft.
Since the original formulation of the American National Safety Standard, Z26.1-1938, the development of synthetic plastic materials has so far advanced that a number of them appear to be practical for certain uses as safety glazing materials for glazing motor vehicles operating on land highways; therefore, in the 1966 edition of this standard the foreword and code were modified to the extent necessary to include these synthetic plastic materials along with glass under the general term of "safety glazing materials" reserving the use of the word "glass" as applying only to the ceramic material, and of the word "plastic" as applying only to synthetic, organic, plastic materials.
Early in its deliberations, the Z26 Committee recognized the fact that no one set of specifications or methods of test could well apply to safety glazing materials as used for all purposes. Therefore, the members decided to prepare a separate standard for each of the major usages included in the scope of the main project. In keeping with that decision, this standard, as its title indicates, pertains only to "Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment Operating on Land Highways." Such motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment shall include passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, slide-in campers, pickup covers designed to carry persons while in motion, motorhomes, and trailers.
It is hoped that the test procedures and performance requirements detailed in this standard may be uniformly adopted by motor vehicle commissioners and other interested regulatory officials as the basis for their approval of the safety glazing materials in motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment coming within their jurisdiction, or for incorporation in their regulations; that they may serve as a guide to automobile manufacturers as to the safety glazing materials which will be acceptable to such officials; and that they may enable the consumer (the commercial operator and the general public) to have assurance that the safety glazing materials in the motor vehicle that is purchased should reduce, in comparison with glazing of ordinary types, the likelihood of injury to persons riding in such motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment by these safety glazing materials whether they may be broken or unbroken.
It is the fundamental purpose of this standard to prescribe the functional properties of safety glazing materials in such a manner that they can be used in any place in motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment for which they possess those mechanical or optical properties, or both, that are requisite and appropriate. For example, safety glazing materials for windshields must pass a specified group of test requirements, all of which currently can be met only by certain laminated safety glazing; however, if and when other safety glazing materials are developed which possess properties such that they, too, fulfill the requirements of the prescribed tests for this location, they may also be used; and similar reasoning would apply for other locations. This standard is designed to serve two purposes: (1) to afford a basis for standards for adoption in regulations by governmental regulatory bodies; or (2) for use by motor vehicle commissioners or others as reference standards in such cases as they may have discretionary authority to adopt these or other standards in connection with the approval of safety glazing materials or other items of use in or on motor vehicle equipment.
This standard does not state that safety glazing materials shall be used or to what extent they shall be used in glazing motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment. Such requirements rest with either the legislative or administrative authority. When by law or regulation escape or emergency egress openings are required and when such requirement is met by use of glazed openings, Test 25 (see 5.25) is provided as a means of measuring and establishing the escape value of the safety glazing material.
This standard, which is the result of extended and careful consideration of available knowledge and experience on the subject, is intended to provide minimum requirements that are recommended for use, adoption, and enforcement by federal, state, and local administrative authorities.
Caution should be exercised not to make laws and regulations dealing with this subject so inflexible as to preclude subsequent adoption of technological advancements in the development of safety glazing materials.
Except for special requirements for specified locations, safety glazing materials of seven general types can meet some or all requirements detailed in this standard. All seven types are commercially feasible today. Each of them possesses its own distinctive safety characteristics. The seven types are listed below and are described in Section 1.
(1) Laminated Glass
(2) Glass-Plastic Glazing Material
(3) Tempered Glass
(5) Multiple Glazed Unit (Class 1 and Class2)
(6) BuIlet-Resistant Glazing
(7) Bullet-Resistant Shield
The Z26 Committee and the Secretariat believe that this standard reflects the best current technology in the art of automotive glazing. It is recognized that new developments are to be expected in safety glazing materials, and that revisions of the standard will be necessary as the art progresses and as further experience is gained. It is felt, however, that uniform requirements are very much needed, that the standard in its present form permits the use of the more desirable types of safety glazing material snow commercially available, and that it distinguishes between the better and the poorer grades of those types, as well as prescribing and, in some cases, limiting the places at which certain types may be used.
Definitions are provided in Section 1.
Footnotes to this standard are included for purposes of clarification.
Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. They should be sent to the Secretariat at the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 3001 W. Big Beaver Road, Suite 320, Troy, Michigan 48084.
This standard was processed and approved for submittal to ANSI by the Society of Automotive Engineer/American National Standards Committee on Specifications and Methods of Test for Safety Glazing Material, Z26. Committee approval of the standard does not necessarily imply that all committee members voted for its approval. At the time it approved this standard, the Z26 Committee had the following members:
R. L. Morrison, Chairman
J. Pokrzywa, Secretary