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Analog and Digital Control System Design: Transfer-Function, State-Space, and Algebraic Methods

2006 Edition, February 24, 2006

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ISBN: 9780195310467
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Product Details:

  • Revision: 2006 Edition, February 24, 2006
  • Published Date: February 24, 2006
  • Status: Active, Most Current
  • Document Language: English
  • Published By: Oxford University Press (OUP)
  • Page Count: 620
  • ANSI Approved: No
  • DoD Adopted: No

Description / Abstract:


This book was developed as a text for an introductory course in control systems for junior- and senior-level students in engineering curricula. It can also be used as a reference book for graduate students and practicing engineers. Necessary background includes knowledge of general physics and elementary circuit analysis. A course on systems and signals that covers the Laplace transform and linear algebraic equations is helpful but not essential. These two topics are reviewed in the appendices of this book.

As an introductory text, this book covers only single-variable linear time-invariant lumped systems. Both the transfer function approach and the state-variable approach are introduced. Even though most physical systems to be controlled are analog, compensators have increasingly become digital. Therefore, both analog and digital techniques are discussed. The scope of this text is briefly described in the following.

After discussing some examples of control systems and related basic terminology in Chapter 1, we introduce transfer functions and state-variable equations in Chapter 2. The relationships between them, including the concepts of complete characterization and minimal equations, are also discussed. Chapter 3 develops block diagrams for control systems; the loading problem is considered in the development. Open-loop and closed-loop control systems are analyzed and compared in Chapter 4. This leads to a study of stability: Implications of stability are then discussed. Chapter 5 discusses digital computer computation and operational amplifier (opamp) circuit realization of state-variable equations and transfer functions. Op-amp realizations can be viewed as the modem version of analog computer simulation. This concludes the analysis part of control systems.

Chapter 6 discusses formulation of design problems and performance specifications of control systems as well as physical constraints in design. Feedback configurations are then shown to be less sensitive to noise and disturbance than open-loop configurations. Chapter 7 introduces the root-locus design method; Chapter 8, the frequency domain method; Chapters 9 and 10, optimal and linear algebraic methods, and Chapter 11, the state-space method. Chronologically, the frequency-domain method, developed in the 1940s, was the earliest method used to design control systems, but because of the difficulties it presented in designing systems with unstable poles, the root-locus method was developed in the 1950s. Both of the methods described in Chapters 7 and 8 are based on transfer functions and were not easily extendable to multi-input and multi-output systems; this difficulty was removed after the development of state-variable equations in the 1960s. This led to a better understanding of the structure of systems by introducing the concepts of controllability and observability and to the design methods of pole placement and state estimators, as discussed in Chapter 11. With the impetus of state-space results, the interests in transfer functions were renewed in the 1970s. By considering transfer functions as ratios of two polynomials, the polynomial fraction approach was bom. The approach was translated into solving linear algebraic equations in the 1980s and is discussed in Chapter 10. For pedagogical reasons, these design methods are arranged as in this text rather than in chronological order. These methods are basically independent, however, and can be studied in any order. With the wide availability of microprocessors, control systems are increasingly controlled by digital computers or special digital hardware. Chapter 12 introduces some preliminary background. Design methods are then introduced in Chapter 13. Dead-beat design is also discussed. In the last chapter, we discuss PID controllers. These controllers are widely employed in industries. Their employment in linear and nonlinear systems is briefly discussed.