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API 4434

82nd Edition, 1982

Complete Document

Review of Ground-Water Models (Reprinted 1986)

Includes all amendments and changes through Reprint , 1986


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Product Details:

  • Revision: 82nd Edition, 1982
  • Published Date: January 1986
  • Status: Not Active, See comments below
  • Document Language: English
  • Published By: American Petroleum Institute (API)
  • Page Count: 78
  • ANSI Approved: No
  • DoD Adopted: No

Description / Abstract:

As mentioned above, the basic concept was to produce a primer on ground-water modeling. An understanding of fundamental ground-water principles is necessary for an understanding of the issues that are currently being debated, issues that revolve around the appropriate role of ground-water models in engineering decisions and in policy conflicts which will affect the nation's ground-water resources.

There has been no attempt to present an exhaustive list of references to ground-water models or to discuss in great detail any one model. Over the past several years there have been a number of compilations and surveys of models (e.g., Anderson (1979). Bachmet et al. (1978. 1980), Roy F. Weston (1978), Snell and Canter (1980)). These references are generally available and the interested reader can obtain these compilations and the reports on which they are based.

In Section 3 of this report the basics of ground-water flow are presented. The fundamental laws and parameters are presented in a way that avoids complex mathematics. The few simple equations that are included should not be avoided because they are easy to understand and are at the very core of ground-water modeling. Most of the discussion in subsequent sections relies heavily on a knowledge of these basic concepts.

Processes which affect contaminant transport in ground water are described in Section 4. This section also includes many basic relationships that are required for an understanding of transport modeling.

Section 5 presents various approaches to ground-water modeling. The different types and classifications of models are described and certain strengths and limitations of each type are mentioned. Any model is only as good as the data which it utilizes. Thus, a basic understanding of how the model parameters are evaluated is just as important as an understanding of the model itself. Section 6 describes the processes by which data are collected both in the field and in the laboratory and the care which must be taken in the interpretation of these data.

Section 7 includes references to some of the recent compilations of ground-water models. General conclusions on the strengths and weaknesses of models, based on these references and on the experience of the writers, are presented. This is followed in Section 8 by a more detailed discussion of model selection and model limitations and errors.