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API IRE C9 3rd Edition, June 1, 1981
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Guide for Inspection of Refinery Equipment Chapter IX-Fired Heaters and Stacks
Additional Comments: 821-00009 * W/D NO S/S
Page Count:60
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Furnaces, as used in a refinery, are more commonly known as "fired heaters, "fired pipe stills," "heaters, or "gas generators." This chapter covers the inspection of fired heaters and stacks. It includes a description of the various types of fired heaters and stacks and discusses the reasons for inspection, causes of deterioration, frequency and methods of inspection, methods of repair, and records and reports. Safety and efficiency of operation are emphasized.

In this chapter, the term operating conditions is used to mean the combination of pressure, temperature, and velocity of the fluid being heated, as well as the muffle temperature and the composition of combustion products in the heater or piece of equipment under discussion.