Since the first edition of Guide to Groundwater Standards of the United States was published in 1983, regulations at both the state and federal levels have been greatly expanded. A partial listing of groundwater related events of the last two years includes;
• Establishment of EPA's Office of Groundwater in April 1984 to coordinate groundwater programs administered by the agency's other offices
• Establishment of Offices of Groundwater in each of the 10 EPA regions
• Issuance of a final Underground Injection Control (UIC) program by EPA in May 1984, with final UIC regulations promulgated in November 1984
• Release of the final EPA Groundwater Protection Strategy on 30 August 1984
• Major amendments to RCRA, with provisions for regulating underground storage tanks
• Expansion of activities under CERCLA during 1984
• Final regulations on groundwater testing and monitoring under RCRA
• Establishment of the Groundwater Research Review Committee within the Science Advisory Board in the fall of 1984
• Approval of many state UIC programs
• Approval of many state RCRA programs
• Additional designations of sole source aquifers, with others
• Proposed Proposed revisions to groundwater quality criteria and standards by many states
• Aquifer contamination studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in most states
• A National Groundwater Policy Forum, comprising state, industry, and environmental groups, announced in January 1985
• Promulgation in January 1985 of a new 40 CFR 130 on "(State) Water Quality Management and Planning," which recommends elements of state groundwater management plans
• Development of Groundwater Protection Programs by many states
• Development of a Memorandum of Understanding on groundwater programs among EPA, USGS, and the Bureau of Reclamation
Because of these events and others, the American Petroleum Institute (API) recognized the need to update its Guide to Groundwater Standards of the United States. They retained Lawler, Matusky & Skelly Engineers to compile pertinent information on federal and state regulations, standards, and programs concerning the use and protection of groundwater, and to revise where necessary the 1983 version of the guide.
This Guide to Groundwater Programs of the United States Is composed of two parts. The first part, Chapters 1-4, provides an overview of technical and regulatory concepts and terminology and a summary of the federal programs that provide the basis for state regulations. The second part. Chapters 5 and 6, provides information on state groundwater programs and standards. Chapter 5 is an overview, and Chapter 6 contains alphabetically arranged summaries for each of the 57 states and territories.
Much of the information discussed in this guide, particularly that related to the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), will be superseded as EPA develops regulations to carry out the amendments. Of particular importance will be the new regulations on underground storage tanks, limitations on land disposal of hazardous wastes, and further restrictions on small quantity generators (SQGs) of hazardous wastes. It is clear, therefore, that the groundwater regulations will be in a state of flux over the next several years. The information provided in this guide is based on regulations effective in September 1985. In using the guide, the reader should be cognizant of the most recent changes in these programs. To assist the reader, names of contacts for various state groundwater programs are provided in Chapter 6, and the regional groundwater coordinators are listed in Chapter 3. These agency staff should be consulted to confirm the current status of standards and regulations concerning groundwater.