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1978 Edition, March 1978

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Hydrogen-Assisted Crack Growth in 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo Steel

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Product Details:

  • Revision: 1978 Edition, March 1978
  • Published Date: March 1978
  • Status: Not Active, See comments below
  • Document Language: English
  • Published By: American Petroleum Institute (API)
  • Page Count: 40
  • ANSI Approved: No
  • DoD Adopted: No

Description / Abstract:


The problems of hydrogen in steel of particular interest to the petroleum-refining industry result almost entirely from hydrogen that is absorbed from the service environment. For hydrocracker reactor vessels, those environments consist of high-pressure, high-temperature [up to 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and 850 F (454 C)] hydrogen gas of varying degrees of purity or of gaseous mixtures that contain hydrogen. Although hydrogen can cause problems in steels under the operating conditions for the hydrocracker vessels, namely, hydrogen attack and blistering, the problem of concern in this study was hydrogen-assisted crack growth that might occur when the vessel was cooled to ambient temperature after the steel had absorbed hydrogen under the operating conditions.

The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the amount of hydrogen absorbed by 2-1/4 Cr-l Mo steels from simulated hydrocracker service environments and (2) to determine the effects of those amounts of hydrogen on the crack-growth behavior of the steel at room temperature as a function of strength level using a fracture-mechanics analysis based on a modified wedge-opening-loading (WOL) specimen.