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API PUBL 958

1981 Edition, May 1981

Complete Document

Pilot Studies on the Toxicity of Effluents from Conventional and Carbon Enhanced Treatment of Refinery Wastewater-Phase III



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Product Details:

  • Revision: 1981 Edition, May 1981
  • Published Date: May 1981
  • Status: Not Active, See comments below
  • Document Language: English
  • Published By: American Petroleum Institute (API)
  • Page Count: 120
  • ANSI Approved: No
  • DoD Adopted: No

Description / Abstract:

Three pilot-scale activated sludge units were operated in parallel with common pretreatment utilizing wastewater streams from a Class D refinery. Effluents from the following systems were tested:

1. Conventional Treatment: A conventionally operated activated sludge unit + final filtration.

2. GAC Treatment: A conventionally operated activated sludge unit + final filtration + granular activated carbon contactors.

3. Commercial PAC Treatment: An activated sludge unit to which a blend of commercially available powdered activated carbons was added + final filtration.

4. Experimental PAC Treatment: An activated sludge unit to which an experimental high-surface-area, powdered activated carbon was added + final filtration.

Half-strength and full-strength effluents from the pilot units were compared over three separate 30-day test periods using conventional effluent parameters and continuous-flow fish bioassays with sheepshead killifish, Cyprinodon variegatus. Short-term (96-hour) and long-term (30-day) bioassays were conducted to distinguish between transient system upsets and longer-term cumulative effects. Fish tissue was examined microscopically for histopathological changes and was analyzed for accumulation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and metals (single sampling).