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ASTM D4093 1995 Edition, October 10, 1995
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Standard Test Method for Photoelastic Measurements of Birefringence and Residual Strains in Transparent or Translucent Plastic Materials
Includes all amendments and changes through Reapproval Notice , 2014
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This test method covers measurements of direction ofprincipal strains, ε1 and ε2, and the photoelastic retardation, δ, using a compensator, for the purpose of analyzing strains in transparent or translucent plastic materials.

This test method can be used to measure birefringence and to determine the difference of principal strains or normal strains when the principal directions do not change substantially within the light path.

In addition to the method using a compensator described in this test method, other methods are in use, such as the goniometric method (using rotation of the analyzer) mostly applied for measuring small retardation, and expressing it as a fraction of a wavelength. Nonvisual methods employing spectrophotometric measurements and eliminating the human judgment factor are also possible.

Test data obtained by this test method is relevant and appropriate for use in engineering design. 

The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. 

This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

NOTE 1—There is no known ISO equivalent to this test method.