1.1 This practice serves as a guide for preparing statements on
sampling in methods of test for textiles. Illustrative texts are
included which, with suitable modification, can be used as starting
points for writing statements on sampling for any of the usual forms
in which textiles are shipped.
1.2 Since the primary purpose of ASTM test methods is to evaluate some
characteristic of a material being transferred from a supplier to a
purchaser, the procedures for sampling in this practice are directed
to the acceptance testing of commercial shipments of a product. Test
methods which are not recommended for use in acceptance testing of
commercial shipments or which are only intended for ranking products
for developmental purposes, may require modifications in the format of
the appropriate illustrative text, such as the omission of any
reference to lot samples.
1.3 ASTM standards are developed by a consensus process that considers
the interests of producers, consumers, and the general public.
Committee D-13, therefore, recommends giving preference to methods of
selecting sampling plans, such as the two-point plans in the annexes
in Practice D 3777, that require conscious consideration of both the
producer's risk and the consumer's risk. The consumer's risk can be
determined for the sampling plans in MIL-STD-105D and MIL-STD-414 but
those military standards tend to focus attention on the producer's
risk rather than on both the producer's and consumer's risks.
1.4 This practice makes no attempt to develop any theoretical basis
for sampling. The theoretical basis for sampling is discussed in a
number of standard statistical texts (1-5) as well as in Practice E
105. Procedures for developing simple two-point single sampling plans
for acceptance testing are given in Practice D 3777.
1.5 This standard includes the following sections: