This practice covers the determination of the quality of soil
samples in thin wall tubes or of extruded cores by X-ray
This practice enables the user to determine the effects of
sampling and natural variations within samples as identified by the
extent of the relative penetration of X-rays through soil
This practice can be used to X-ray cores (or observe their
features on a fluoroscope) in thin wall tubes or liners ranging
from approximately 50 to 150 mm (2 to 6 in.) in diameter. X-rays of
samples in the larger diameter tubes provide a radiograph of major
features of soils and disturbances, such as large scale bending of
edges of varved clays, shear planes, the presence of large
concretions, silt and sand seams thicker than 6 mm (¼ in.), large
lumps of organic matter, and voids or other types of intrusions.
X-rays of the smaller diameter cores provide higher resolution of
soil features and disturbances, such as small concretions (3 mm
(1⁄8 in.) diameter or larger), solution
channels, slight bending of edges of varved clays, thin silt or
sand seams, narrow solution channels, plant root structures, and
organic matter. The X-raying of samples in thin wall tubes or
liners requires minimal preparation.
Greater detail and resolution of various features of the soil
can be obtained by X-raying of extruded cores, as compared to
samples in metal tubes. The method used for X-raying cores is the
same as that for tubes and liners, except that extruded cores have
to be handled with extreme care and have to be placed in sample
holders (similar to Fig. 2) before X-raying. This practice should
be used only when natural water content or other intact soil
characteristics are irrelevant to the end use of the sample.
Often it is necessary to obtain greater resolution of features
to determine the propriety of sampling methods, the representative
nature of soil samples, or anomalies in soils. This practice
requires that either duplicate samples be obtained or already
tested specimens be X-rayed.
This practice can only be used to their fullest extent after
considerable experience is obtained through many detailed
comparisons between the X-ray image and the sample X-rayed.
Units-The values stated in SI units are to be regarded
as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical
conversions to inch-pound units, which are provided for information
only and are not considered standard.
Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be
regarded as nonconformance with this test method.
This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or
more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or
experience and should be used in conjunction with professional
judgment. Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all
circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or
replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given
professional service must be judged, nor should this document be
applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects.
The word "Standard" in the title of this document means only that
the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus
All observed and calculated values shall conform to the
guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in
For purposes of comparing, a measured or calculated value(s)
with specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be
rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the
The procedures used to specify how data are collected/ recorded
or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry
standard. In addition, they are representative of the signification
digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do
not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data,
special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user's
objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce
significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these
considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider
significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety
concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility
of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and
health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory
limitations prior to use. For specific precaution statements,
see Section 6.
*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this