This test method covers the estimation of the gross and net heat
of combustion in SI units, megajoules per kilogram, of petroleum
fuels from the fuel density, sulfur, water, and ash content.
NOTE 1—The equation for estimation of net and gross heat of
combustion used in this method were originally published by the
NIST Publication No. 97.
This test method is especially useful for estimating, using a
minimum number of tests, the heat of combustion of burner and
diesel fuels for which it is not usually critical to obtain very
precise heat determinations.
NOTE 2—More accurate estimation methods are available for
aviation fuels (Test Methods D1405, D4529,and D3338). However,
those estimation methods require additional tests to those required
in this test method.
This test method is purely empirical (Note 1). It is applicable
only to liquid hydrocarbon fuels derived by normal refining
processes from conventional crude oil that conform to the
requirements of specifications for petroleum fuels as described in
Note 3. This test method is valid for those fuels in the density
range from 750 to 1000 kg/m3 and those that do not
contain an unusually high aromatic content. High aromatic content
fuels will not normally meet fuel specification criteria.
NOTE 3—The estimation of the heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon
fuel from its density and sulfur, water, and ash content is
justifiable only when the fuel belongs to well-defined classes for
which a relationship between these quantities have been derived
from accurate experimental measurements on representative samples
of these classes. Even in these classes, the possibility that the
estimate may be in error by large amounts for individual fuels
should be recognized. This test method has been tested for a
limited number of fuels from oil sand bitumen and shale oil origin
and has been found to be valid.
This test method is not applicable to pure hydrocarbons. It is
not intended as a substitute for experimental measurements of heat
of combustion (Note 4).
NOTE 4—The procedures for the experimental determination of the
gross and net heats of combustion are described in Test Methods
D240 and D4809.
The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No
other units of measurement are included in this standard.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety
concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility
of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and
health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory
limitations prior to use.
Order online or call: Americas: +1 800 854 7179 | Asia Pacific: +852 2368 5733 | Europe, Middle East, Africa: +44 1344 328039