These reference radiographs illustrate various categories,
types, and severity levels of discontinuities occurring in
high-strength copper-base, nickel-copper, and related alloy
castings. The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this
document and must be purchased separately from ASTM International,
if needed (see 2.3). Categories and severity levels for each
discontinuity type represented by these reference radiographs are
described in 1.2.
NOTE 1—The basis of application for these reference radiographs
requires a prior purchaser supplier agreement of radiographic
examination attributes and classification criterion described in
Sections 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10 of this standard.
These reference radiographs consist of forty-five 5 by 7-in.
(127 by 178-mm) nominal size reproductions (twenty made from 1-in.
(25.4-mm) plate castings exposed with low voltage X-rays for
thicknesses up to and including 2 in.) and twenty-five made from
3-in. (76-mm) plate castings exposed with 2 MV X-rays or Cobalt 60
isotope for thicknesses greater than 2 in. up to and including 6
in. Unless otherwise specified in a purchaser supplier agreement
(see 1.1), each discontinuity category is for comparison only with
production radiographs produced with radiation energy levels within
the thickness range covered by the category. These reference
radiographs illustrate discontinuities in sand-cast
manganese-nickelaluminum bronze-alloy plates and are representative
of those found in narrow freezing range (formerly "high
shrinkage"), high-strength copper and nickel-copper alloys.
Following is a list of discontinuity categories, types and severity
levels for the adjunct reference radiographs of this standard (see
Category A—Gas porosity; severity levels 1 through 5
for two thickness ranges.
AX—Up to and including 2 inches (50.8 mm) (called
"Code A Discontinuity type" in previous revisions).
AG—Greater than 2 in. (50.8 mm) up to and including 6
in. (152.4 mm) (called "Code A Discontinuity type" in previous
Ba—Sand inclusions, severity levels 1 through 5 for two
thickness ranges. (1) BaX—Up to and including 2 in. (50.8 mm)
(called "Code Ba Discontinuity type" in previous revisions). (2)
BaG—Greater than 2 in. (50.8 mm) up to and including 6 in. (152.4
mm) (called "Code Ba Discontinuity type" in previous
Bb—Dross inclusions, severity levels 1 through 5 for two
thickness ranges. (1) BbX--Up to and including 2 in. (50.8 mm)
(called "Code Bb Discontinuity type" in previous revisions). (2)
BbG—greater than 2 in. (50.8 mm) up to and including 6 in. (152.4
mm) (called "Code Bb Discontinuity type" in previous
Category C—Shrinkage; three types
Ca—linear shrinkage, severity levels 1 through 5 for 2
inches to and including 6 in. (50.8 to 152.4 mm) in thickness
Cb—feathery shrinkage, severity levels 1 through 5 for
thicknesses up to and including 2 in. (50.8 mm). (Called "Cd
feathery shrinkage" in previous revisions).
Cc——spongy shrinkage, severity levels 1 through 5 for 2
in. to and including 6 in. (50.8 to 152.4 mm) in thickness (called
"Cd spongy shrinkage" in previous revisions).
NOTE 2—Discontinuity classes designated with a subscript "X"
were produced with low energy X-ray radiation; discontinuity
classes designated with subscript "G" were produced with Cobalt 60
and/or 2 MV X-rays and are the same reference radiographs and
thickness ranges used in previous editions of this standard.
Section 4 details the significance and use of these reference
From time to time, there may be minor changes to the process for
manufacturing of the reference radiograph adjunct materials. These
changes could include changes in the films or processing chemicals
used, changes in the dies or printing for the cardboard mats, etc.;
however, in all cases, these changes are reviewed by the
Illustration Monitoring Subcommittee and all reference radiographs
are reviewed against a fixed prototype image to ensure that there
are no changes to the acceptance level represented by the reference
radiographs. Therefore, the adjunct reference radiographs remain
valid for use with this standard regardless of the date of
production or the revision level of the text standard.
The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as
standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical
conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and
are not considered standard.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety
concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility
of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and
health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory
limitations prior to use.
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