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Cancer Cell Signaling: Targeting Signaling Pathways Toward Therapeutic Approaches to Cancer

2014 Edition, June 20, 2014

Complete Document

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Active, Most Current

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ISBN: 978-1-4822-9945-8
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Product Details:

  • Revision: 2014 Edition, June 20, 2014
  • Published Date: June 20, 2014
  • Status: Active, Most Current
  • Document Language: English
  • Published By: CRC Press (CRC)
  • Page Count: 402
  • ANSI Approved: No
  • DoD Adopted: No

Description / Abstract:


CD248 is a cell surface glycoprotein, highly expressed by stromal cells and fibroblasts of tumors and inflammatory lesions, but virtually undetectable in healthy adult tissues. CD248 promotes tumorigenesis, while lack of CD248 in mice confers resistance to tumor growth. Mechanisms by which CD248 is downregulated are poorly understood, hindering the development of anti-cancer therapies. In Chapter 1, Babu and colleagues sought to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which CD248 is downregulated by surveying its expression in different cells in response to cytokines and growth factors. Only transforming growth factor (TGFβ) suppressed CD248 protein and mRNA levels in cultured fi broblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. TGFβ transcriptionally downregulated CD248 by signaling through canonical Smad2/3-dependent pathways, but not via mitogen activated protein kinases p38 or ERK1/2. Notably, cancer associated fi broblasts (CAF) and cancer cells were resistant to TGFβ mediated suppression of CD248. The fi ndings indicate that decoupling of CD248 regulation by TGFβ may contribute to its tumor-promoting properties, and underline the importance of exploring the TGFβ-CD248 signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target for early prevention of cancer and proliferative disorders.

Ras is a membrane-associated small G-protein that funnels growth and differentiation signals into downstream signal transduction pathways by cycling between an inactive, GDP-bound and an active, GTP-bound state. Aberrant Ras activity as a result of oncogenic mutations causes de novocell transformation and promotes tumor growth and progression. In Chapter 2, Augsten and colleagues describe a novel strategy to block deregulated Ras activity by means of oligomerized cognate protein modules derived from the Ras-binding domain of c-Raf (RBD), which the authors named MSOR for multivalent scavengers of oncogenic Ras. The introduction of well-characterized mutations into RBD was used to adjust the affi nity and hence the blocking potency of MSOR towards activated Ras. MSOR in- hibited several oncogenic Ras-stimulated processes including downstream activation of Erk1/2, induction of matrix-degrading enzymes, cell motility and invasiveness in a graded fashion depending on the oligomerization grade and the nature of the individual RBD-modules. The amenability to accurate experimental regulation was further improved by engineering an inducible MSOR-expression system to render the reversal of oncogenic Ras effects controllable. MSOR represent a new tool for the experimental and possibly therapeutic selective blockade of oncogenic Ras signals.