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Endothelial Cell Plasticity in the Normal and Injured Central Nervous System

2015 Edition, January 28, 2015

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ISBN: 978-1-4665-9923-9
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Product Details:

  • Revision: 2015 Edition, January 28, 2015
  • Published Date: January 28, 2015
  • Status: Active, Most Current
  • Document Language: English
  • Published By: CRC Press (CRC)
  • Page Count: 268
  • ANSI Approved: No
  • DoD Adopted: No

Description / Abstract:

Preface

It was once thought that blood vessels were passive elements that only provided metabolic and structural support for the central nervous system (CNS). However, the vasculature and the cells that comprise it are dynamic and may participate in many, if not all, aspects of CNS function. Endothelial cells, in particular, are highly heterogeneous and very plastic entities well suited and ideally placed to mediate the interactions between the vascular tree and the rest of the nervous system. There was a need to produce this volume to make the reader conscious of the fact that blood vessels have been long neglected with regard to their importance for assuring CNS function, development and maintenance. We think the chapters in this book are profi cient in transmitting this point of view.

The title of this book emphasizes the very important fact that endothelial cells are capable of plastic changes. There are many examples of this throughout the book, some of which will be mentioned here. The basilar artery derives from migration of vein endothelial cells, showing that their phenotype is modifi able (Chapter 1). The microenvironment where endothelial cells reside in the forebrain determines the expression of homeobox transcription factors, which in turn determines their response to environmental signals (Chapter 1). The cells of the endothelium show extensive phenotypic heterogeneity and also functional diversity (Chapter 2). This variety favors the establishment and maintenance of compartmentalized microenvironments such as: neurogenic niches (SGZ and SVZ, Chapter 2), migratory routes (RMS, Chapter 2), sites that extensively contact blood-borne molecules (circumventricular organs, Chapter 2), regions where neurons differentiate (olfactory bulb) and locations that allow neuro-endocrine communication (median eminence, Chapter 4). Vascular cells, in particular the endothelium, are responsible for the dynamic and complex changes in blood fl ow and blood-brain barrier transport effi ciency as a function of the local synaptic activity (neurovascular and neurobarrier coupling, Chapter 3). Plasticity of endothelial cells in the median eminence is ultimately in control of female reproduction (Chapter 4). Whether a cause or consequence of pathologies (drug-resistant epilepsy), the expression of transporter or carrier proteins is altered in endothelial cells (Chapter 5). Tumor neovascularization is extremely plastic; the vessels can grow by intussusceptive or proliferating angiogenesis, differentiation of cancer stem cells and vasculogenic mimicry (Chapter 6). Plasticity or heterogeneity of endothelial cells causes the differences between the blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier which render the spinal cord more susceptible to certain lesion types (Chapter 7). Changes in the phenotype of endothelial cells participate importantly in the damage and recovery from stroke (Chapter 8). Evidently, the plasticity of endothelial cells has a limit, revealed by the fact that they are as vulnerable as neurons to the diverse types of damage observed in Alzheimer┬┤s disease (Chapter 9). Endothelial cells also crucially participate in neuro-immune communication in both health and disease. For example, leukocyte entry into the CNS during infl ammation requires their interaction with endothelial cells via adhesion ligand molecules and chemokine receptors. Under non-infl ammatory conditions the sites of leukocyte migration into the CNS are the choroid plexus and the meninges. The chemokines and adhesion molecules also underlie leukocyte-endothelial cell communication at these sites.