MIL-HDBK-1025/1 1987 Edition, October 30, 1987
PIERS AND WHARVES
Includes all amendments and changes through Cancellation Notice 4, December 15, 2006
Additional Comments: CNCL S/S BY MIL-STD-3007
This handbook contains descriptions and design criteria for pier and wharf construction, including subsidiary, contiguous, and auxiliary structures. Loading details, regulations, furnishings, appurtenances, and other information are discussed when applicable.
This handbook cancels and supersedes NAVFAC DM-25.1, November 1980, and Change 1 dated June 1982.
For related criteria refer to the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOM) sources itemized below (see references).
Subject Source Cargo Handling Facilities MIL-HDBK-1025/3 Civil Engineering - Drainage Systems DM-5.03 Civil Engineering - Pavements DM-5.04 Civil Engineering - Pollution DM-5.08 Control Systems Civil Engineering - Solid Waste Disposal DM-5.10 Civil Engineering - Trackage DM-5.06 Civil Engineering - Water Supply Systes DM-5.07 Coastal Protection DM-26.02 Dockside Utilities for Ship Service DM-25.02 Facility Planning Criteria for Navy and P-80 Marine Shore Installations Ferry Terminals and Small Craft DM-25.05 Berthing Facilities Foundations and Earth Structures DM-7.02 General Criteria for Waterfront DM-25.06 Construction Harbors DM-26.01 Mooring Design Physical and DM-26.06 Empirical Data Pontoon Systems Manual P-401 Seawalls, Bulkheads and Quaywalls DM-25.04 Soil Dynamics, Deep Stabilization, and Special Geotechnical Construction DM-7.03 Soil Mechanics DM-7.01 Structural Engineering - Aluminum Structures, Masonry Structures, Composite Structures, Other Structural Materials MIL-HDBK-1002/6 Structural Engineering - DM-2.04 Concrete Structures Structural Engineering - DM-2.01 General Requirements Structural Engineering - Loads DM-2.02 Subject Source Steel Structures MIL-HDBK-1002/3 Timber Structures MIL-HDBK-1002/5 Weight Handling Equipment DM-38.01
Piers and wharves provide a transfer point for cargo and/or passengers between water carriers and land transport. Where service involves the movement of large volumes of both cargo and passengers, separate facilities should be provided for each. Where one service is subsidiary to another, consideration should be given to the feasibility of accommodating both services at one facility.
Piers and wharves are classified according to primary function with the following description:
These are dedicated piers and wharves used for discharging ammunition for storage and for loading ammunition on outgoing ships. Explosives and ammunition quantity/distance standards are discussed in Naval Sea Systems Command NAVSEA OP 5, Volume 1, Ammunition and Explosives Ashore.
These are general-purpose piers and wharves used primarily for mooring ships when they are not at sea. Furthermore, berthing facilities may be active, as when ships are berthed for relatively short times and are ready to put to sea on short notice, and inactive as when they are berthed for long periods in a reserve status. Activities that typically take place on berthing piers and wharves are personnel transfer, maintenance, crew training, cargo transfer, light repair work,and waste handling. Under some circumstances, fueling and weapons system testing may also be carried out in these facilities.
Piers and wharves for fitting-out are very similar to those used for repair purposes, providing approximately the same facilities. However, fitting-out piers and wharves will have, in addition to light and heavy portal cranes, large fixed tower cranes for handling guns, turrets, engines, and heavy armor.
These are dedicated piers and wharves equipped with facilities for off-loading fuel from ship to storage and for fueling ships from storage. For additional design criteria, see MIL-HDBK-1025/3, Cargo Handling Facilities, and Naval Facilities Engineering Command NAVFAC DM-25.02, Dockside Utilities for Ship Service.
Repair piers and wharves are constructed and equipped to permit overhaul of ships and portions of a hull above the waterline. These structures are generally equipped with portal cranes.
Supply piers and wharves are used primarily for the transfer of cargo between ships and shore facilities. Standard gage railroad tracks may be provided when supplies are expected to be brought in by rail.
These are piers and wharves specifically used for removing or altering the magnetic characteristics of a ship by means of a powerful, external demagnetizing electrical charge. Further requirements are discussed in Naval Facilities Engineering Command NAVFAC DM-25.05, Ferry Terminals and Small Craft Berthing Facilities.
Typically, piers and wharves are designed to provide space, utility service, and other supporting facilities for specific incoming or homeported ships. However, berthing plans and clssses of ships berthed change with time. While it is not economically feasible to develop a single facility to accommodate and service all classes of ships presently known, the facility should be designed with a certain amount of flexibility built in for anticipated future changes in the functional requirements. This is especially true for berthing piers and wharves which will be used to accommodate different classes of ships as well as support a variety of new operations.
The following is a list of appurtenances and features generally required for piers and wharves. Dedicated berths may not require all of the listed items, while specialized berths may require additional features.
a) Hotel and ship service utilities
b) Fender systems and separators
c) Mooring devices to safely secure the ship
d) Cranes and crane trackage
e) Access facilities for railroad cars and trucks
f) Waste handling facilities
g) Cargo handling equipment
i) Covered and open storage spaces for cargo
j) Support building, tool shed, office space, and control rooms
k) Lighting poles and equipment
l) Security systems
m) Firefighting equipment
n) Emergency medical facilities
o) Access structures and facilities
p) Fueling facilities