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Neurotoxicology

3rd Edition, March 9, 2010

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Active, Most Current

EN
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ISBN: 978-1-4200-5488-0
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Product Details:

  • Revision: 3rd Edition, March 9, 2010
  • Published Date: March 9, 2010
  • Status: Active, Most Current
  • Document Language: English
  • Published By: CRC Press (CRC)
  • Page Count: 334
  • ANSI Approved: No
  • DoD Adopted: No

Description / Abstract:

Preface

The fi rst edition of this series on the nervous system as a target organ was published in 1992. This edition reviewed methodological approaches to detect and quantify the effects of chemicals at various levels of neurobiological organization (i.e., behavioral, neurophysiological, neurochemical, and neuropathological). The fi rst edition also included chapters on newly emerging areas such as developmental neurotoxicology, neurotoxicology risk assessment, and methods to evaluate neurotoxicity in humans. The evolution of neurotoxicology as a discipline could be seen clearly in the second edition published in 1999. The second edition contained chapters on emerging in vitro approaches to study effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Other chapters emphasized potential sites of action such as neuron–glial interactions, ion channels, the immune system, the endocrine hormone system, and neurotrophic factors during development. Other chapters focused on putative modes of action such as metabolic infl uences, apoptosis, and the formation of reactive oxygen species. The second edition also included a chapter on the use of brain imaging techniques to evaluate neurotoxicity in vivo . There was also a summary of approaches to evaluate learning and memory as neurotoxic endpoints and methods to assess neurotoxicity in children. This volume fi nished with a chapter on emerging concepts for quantitative neurotoxicology risk assessment. The current edition on the nervous system as a target organ refl ects the continued growth and refi nement of the fi eld of neurotoxicology over a 10-year period. Included in the current edition is a chapter devoted to principles of behavioral phenotyping of neonatal and adult mice, an important topic for those interested in working with inbred mouse strains, outbred mouse stocks, or genetically modifi ed mice in neurotoxicological research. Recent developments concerning design-based stereology and video densitometry for the assessment of neurotoxicological damage are also included.

The current edition pays considerable attention to the potential of newly developed methods such as network analysis and emerging molecular approaches to identify potential neurotoxicants and their modes of action. The current edition also describes new advances in understanding the long-term impact of chemicals on the development of the thyroid hormone system and the potential relationship between disruption of the endocrine system and reproductive senescence. As in the case of the second edition, there are chapters that expand upon potential sites of action for neurotoxicity, including adult neurogenesis and the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The current edition also describes exciting new developments concerning the role of infl ammation in the expression of neurotoxicity and the complex compensatory changes that follow damage to the central nervous system both in vivo and in slice cultures. Chapters on the role of neurotoxicants and the manifestation of obesity and the effects of neurotoxins on brain tissue and function revealed through in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy round out the third edition.

The evolution of neurotoxicology as a discipline is clearly documented in the three editions spanning a period of nearly 20 years. The first edition focused primarily on how to measure neurotoxic effects on the nervous system and identifi ed emerging trends such as developmental neurotoxicity. The second edition refl ected the development of new methodologies to identify sites and modes of action of neurotoxicity and described approaches to understand risk to humans of exposure to neurotoxic chemicals. The current edition builds on the two previous editions by exploring the potential use of molecular approaches to screen chemicals for potential neurotoxicity, developing approaches to understand the complex interactions of chemicals with biological systems, and providing the basis to study the relationship between neurotoxicant exposure and the emergence of diseases such as obesity and reproductive senescence. In spite of the tremendous advances that have made over the last 20 years, the discipline of neurotoxicology is still in its infancy. Hopefully, the information provided in this and the previous editions will stimulate current and future students and researchers to study how the nervous system functions and how it responds to chemicals with potentially toxic effects.