This document provides design charts for the flow of liquid through pipes and fittings based upon surface roughness, diameter, velocity and hydraulic gradient. The resistance coefficients of fittings are also included.
The use of computer spreadsheets and programmable calculators has allowed the determination of pipe flow and head loss to be made without the use of charts. Where the unknown factor is the hydraulic gradient, this can be determined either by successive approximation using the Colebrook-White formula or by use of Moody's approximation to the Colebrook-White transition formula.
Therefore the charts provided in this document are for approximate evaluations only. For critical calculations the mathematical formulae must be used.