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Revision K, October 2018

Complete Document

(R) Fluid, Aircraft Deicing/Anti-Icing, Non-Newtonian (Pseudoplastic), SAE Types II, III, and IV

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Product Details:

  • Revision: Revision K, October 2018
  • Published Date: October 2018
  • Status: Active, Most Current
  • Document Language: English
  • Published By: SAE International (SAE)
  • Page Count: 26
  • ANSI Approved: No
  • DoD Adopted: Yes

Description / Abstract:


This foundation specification (AMS1428K) and its associated category specifications (AMS1428/1 and AMS1428/2) cover three types of deicing/anti-icing fluids, each in the form of a non-Newtonian fluid.

Foundation and Category Specifications

This foundation specification establishes the requirements for all Type II, III, and IV aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids. It defines Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) based fluids and Non-Glycol based fluids, and contains additional properties and requirements that apply to both Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) and Non-Glycol based products.


Deicing/anti-icing fluids covered by this specification are classified as follows:

Table 1 - Classification

Fluid SAE Type Anti-Icing Performance Use Table 3 ( Aerodynamic Performance Use AS5900 (see Note) Color

Type II II High Speed Ramp Test Yellow

Type III III Low Speed Ramp Test Bright Yellow

Type IV IV High Speed Ramp Test Green

NOTE: As per, any fluid can be tested in accordance with the AS5900 high speed ramp test and/or low speed ramp test to demonstrate acceptable aerodynamic performance. The designations in Table 1 are for fluid classification purposes only. Consult the fluid manufacturer for complete aerodynamic test data. 


A fluid defined as non-Newtonian exhibits a different apparent viscosity value when tested at the same temperature, using the same viscometer and spindle in a predetermined volume when the only variant is the rotational speed of the spindle. Typically, the non-Newtonian fluid shear stress is not in direct proportion to its rate of flow.


A fluid described as pseudoplastic shall exhibit reduced apparent viscosity values as the spindle speed is increased, and revert to original flow behavior when the shear stress is removed. This shall be demonstrable at the temperatures listed in


This document establishes the minimum requirements for the qualification of ground-based aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids.

Consult AS6285 for more information on the proper use or restrictions of SAE Type II, III, and IV aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids.


The lowest operational use temperature (LOUT) for a SAE Type II, III, and IV fluid shall be determined for the neat (undiluted) fluid or for each intended use dilution, and is the lowest temperature at which the fluid has been tested and certified as acceptable in accordance with the appropriate aerodynamic acceptance test (3.2.5) while still maintaining the 7 °C (13 °F) freezing point temperature buffer (refer to AS6285). The fluid manufacturers’ literature shall clearly state the LOUT for the neat fluid and intended use dilutions.

The deicing/anti-icing formulation may be mildly toxic and contact with human skin and eyes should be avoided. Prolonged exposure to concentrations of vapor or windborne mists should be avoided. Consult the fluid manufacturers’ Material Safety Data Sheet for further information.

Caution should be exercised in the use of glycol-water deicing/anti-icing solutions in and around electrical/electronic circuitry with noble metal coated wiring or terminals which could make contact with the fluid. Exothermic reactions, which may result in fire have been reported. This may occur where defectively insulated wires, switches, or circuit breakers carrying direct current are encountered. Fluids based on glycol shall contain an inhibitor to minimize this potential fire hazard.

A fluid meeting this specification is unique to each manufacturer and may be adversely affected by mixing with other aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids.

Slippery conditions may exist on the ground, or equipment following the deicing/anti-icing procedure.

Deicing/anti-icing fluids should be compatible with carbon brake material. Reference to AS6285 and the airplane manufacturer’s maintenance and service documents for further information on fluid use. The industry standard test method for compatibility is AIR5567.

SAE Type II, III, and IV fluids, especially when used in a one-step process, or in the first step of a two-step process, may cause residues to collect in aerodynamically quiet areas, cavities, and gaps. These residues can affect flight safety. Refer to AS6285 for more information.

Safety - Hazardous Materials

While the materials, methods, applications, and processes described or referenced in this specification may involve the use of hazardous materials, this specification does not address the hazards which may be involved in such use. It is the sole responsibility of the user to ensure familiarity with the safe and proper use of any hazardous materials and processes and to take necessary precautionary measures to ensure the health and safety of all personnel involved.

Fluid Qualification

It is not sufficient for a SAE Type II, III, or IV fluid to meet all of the requirements of AMS1428 for airlines to be able to use it. For such a fluid to be used commercially, it must also have holdover time guidelines and be identified on a list of qualified fluids acceptable to regulators. For information on the qualification process of an AMS1428 fluid, reference ARP5718.

AIA/NAS Aerospace Standards