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Sodium in Health and Disease

2007 Edition, November 16, 2007

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Active, Most Current

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ISBN: 978-0-8493-3978-3
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Product Details:

  • Revision: 2007 Edition, November 16, 2007
  • Published Date: November 16, 2007
  • Status: Active, Most Current
  • Document Language: English
  • Published By: CRC Press (CRC)
  • Page Count: 478
  • ANSI Approved: No
  • DoD Adopted: No

Description / Abstract:

Preface

Salt has long been recognized as the most determinant element of body fluid necessary to maintain the integrity of the milieu inte´rieur. Research on salt has always been intense, and has been characterized in the last ten years by major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of sodium balance in physiological and pathological conditions. Several renal transporters have been cloned and various monogenic forms of hypertension have been characterized in which specific alterations in renal tubular sodium handling have been described. The roles of many important regulators of sodium balance have been defined, such as that of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the influence of renal structure proteins on sodium transport. Relevant information on the impact of sodium in diseases has also been gathered. Recent findings include the description of the link between sodium intake and pulse pressure and isolated systolic hypertension, and the surprising association between aldosterone and the metabolic syndrome.

The aim of Sodium in Health and Disease is to focus on the most recent developments that may be of interest for basic scientists as well as clinicians. It is addressed primarily to specialists in hypertension who are confronted with these salt issues almost every day, but also to cardiologists and nephrologists who have similar concerns regarding the role of salt in the development of cardiac and renal diseases. Interesting new information is provided for scientists working on the molecular biology of sodium transport. We hope to encourage new collaborations between scientists and clinicians.

The latest molecular and experimental mechanisms whereby body sodium homeostasis is maintained are described, followed by the clinical aspects of sodium and a review of the potential role of sodium in diseases such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure, and cirrhosis. The basic science presented in this book provides exciting new data on renal sodium transporters. Eric Fe´raille, Olivier Bonny, and Peter A. Doris have written comprehensive reviews on the Na+-K+-ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, and the renal handling of sodium by the proximal tubule. The authors give important insights into the biochemistry of renal sodium handling. In Chapter 4, Paolo Manunta presents an important new approach to the regulation of sodium excretion, i.e the impact of renal structure proteins on sodium transport. In recent years, considerable new information has been acquired regarding the role of mineralocorticoids and particularly aldosterone. These aspects are covered in Chapters 7 and 8 by Nicolette Farman and Paolo Ferrari in two excellent reviews on aldosterone and 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Sodium balance cannot be maintained without the crucial role of regulating hormones. Interestingly, new hormonal controls of sodium excretion are still being discovered. These hormonal systems are reviewed in light of the most recent data. Edward J. Johns discusses new aspects linked to the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in Chapter 6. Jean-Pierre Montani has risen to the challenge of providing an integrative approach to the multiple mechanisms involved in the regulation of sodium homeostasis.

In the future, even more research will be needed and new tools must be developed. In Chapter 10, Pierre Meneton presents the various animal models that have been generated and are now available for the study of the renal mechanisms of sodium excretion.

The chapters covering the clinical aspect of this topic include a discussion by Graham A. MacGregor on the controversial issue of the link between hypertension and sodium intake. Dr. McGregor handles this topic with conviction and presents several irrefutable arguments. Judith A. Miller provides interesting new data on gender differences in the way sodium balance is maintained, a topic that is rarely covered in textbooks.

Sodium in Health and Disease provides the most recent findings on the role of sodium in diseases such as hepatic cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and chronic renal failure. This research is presented by recognized leaders in the fields: Pere Gine`s, William T. Abraham, Gerjan J. Navis, and Albert Mimran. Finally, Bernard Waeber and Nancy J. Brown address the role of diuretics in the management of hypertension and renal and cardiac diseases. In Chapter 23, Dr. Brown considers the escalating use of mineralocorticoid antagonists and the increasing evidence for clinical benefits of these agents beyond their capacity to enhance sodium excretion.

I have been fortunate that many distinguished authors, colleagues, and friends agreed to contribute to this exciting project. I would like to take this opportunity to thank them all very warmly. I would also like to thank Christine DeGunten for her excellent secretarial support and enthusiasm, and help in maintaining the deadlines. I have also appreciated the great help of the people at Informa Healthcare, who gave me the opportunity to edit this book and provided excellent professional support.