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Synthesis Properties and Applications of Oxide Nanomaterials Complete Document

2007 Edition, January 1, 2007

Complete Document



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ISBN: 9780471724056
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Product Details:

  • Revision: 2007 Edition, January 1, 2007
  • Published Date: January 2007
  • Status: Active, Most Current
  • Document Language: English
  • Published By: John Wiley and Sons (WILEY)
  • Page Count: 746
  • ANSI Approved: No
  • DoD Adopted: No

Description / Abstract:

INTRODUCTION

Both the processes of oxidation and the size reduction form the essential entities that dictate the behavior of a nanostructured oxide. The electronic processes of oxidation destroy the initially metallic bonds to create new kinds of bonds with specific properties, such as polarization, localization, and transportation of charge, which determine the behavior of the oxides to vary from their parent metals (1). Oxygen interaction with atoms of metals relates to the technical processes of corrosion, bulk oxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, and so on (2). Studies of these processes laid the foundations for applications in microelectronics (gate devices and deep submicron integrated circuit technologies), photo-electronics (photoluminescence, photo-conductance, and field emission), magneto-electronics (superconductivity and colossal magneto-resistance) and dielectrics (ferro-, piezo-, and pyro-electrics) (3).

Nanoparticles are entities that appear in between extended solids and molecules or even in an isolated atom. Properties of nanosolids determined by their shapes and sizes are indeed fascinating, which form the basis of the emerging field of nanoscience and nanotechnology that has been recognized as the key significance in science, technology, and economics in the 21st century.When examining nanostructures, many concepts developed in both molecular chemistry and solid-state physics have to be considered. One may develop a "top-down" theory on the behavior of nanosystems starting from a solid and confining it to a limited size. Another chemical-like "bottomup" approach is to start with a molecular system and expand its size. Each approach has different advantages and disadvantages. There is a challenge to bridge these two approaches and develop new concepts for nanostructures.

The size-induced property change of nanostructures has inspired tremendous theoretical efforts. For instance, several models have been developed to explain how the size reduction could induce the blue shift in the photoluminescence (PL) of nanosemiconductors. An impurity luminescent center model (4) assumed that the PL blue shift arises from different types of impurity centers in the solid and suggested that the density and types of the impurity centers vary with particle size. Surface states and the surface alloying mechanism (5,6) proposed that the PL blue shift originates from the extent of surface passivation that is subject to the processing parameters, aging conditions, and operation temperatures (7). The model of inter-cluster interaction and oxidation (8) also claimed responsibility for the PL blue shift. The most elegant model for the PL blue shift could be the "quantum confinement (QC)" theory (9–13). According to the QC theory, the PL energy corresponds to the band gap expansion dictated by electron-hole (e-h) pair (or exciton) production: