The fire dampers covered by these requirements are intended for installation in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association Standard for Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems, NFPA 90A, the International Mechanical Code and the Uniform Mechanical Code.
Fire dampers are evaluated for use as either:
a) Fire Dampers for Static Systems – For HVAC systems that are automatically shut down in the event of a fire or for air transfer openings in walls or partitions,
b) Fire Dampers for Dynamic Systems – For HVAC systems that are operational in the event of a fire,
c) Combination Fire and Smoke Dampers – For locations in HVAC systems where a fire damper and a smoke damper are required at a single location, or
d) Corridor Dampers – For locations in HVAC Systems where air ducts penetrate or terminate at openings in the ceilings of interior corridors when permitted by authority having jurisdiction.
Under these requirements a fire damper is subjected to a standard fire exposure, controlled to achieve specified temperatures throughout a specified time period, followed by the application of a specified standard hose stream. This exposure by itself is not representative of all fire conditions; conditions vary with changes in the amount, nature, and distribution of fire loading, ventilation, compartment size and configuration, and heat sink characteristics of the compartment. These requirements provide a relative measure of fire performance of fire damper assemblies under these specified fire exposure conditions. Any variation from the construction or conditions that are tested such as method of installation and materials has the potential to substantially change the performance characteristics of the fire damper assembly.
Fire dampers for static systems (no air flow through the damper) are intended to close automatically upon the detection of heat by a heat responsive device.
Under these requirements combination fire and smoke dampers, corridor dampers and fire dampers for dynamic systems are exposed to standardized heat and airflow conditions and are evaluated for dynamic closure under these conditions.
Combination fire and smoke dampers and corridor dampers shall also comply with the applicable requirements in the Standard for Smoke Dampers, UL 555S.
Fire dampers for dynamic systems are intended for use where the airflow is operational at the time of fire, such as in a smoke control system, or from other situations in which the fan system is operational at the time of a fire.
Where fire dampers are required in ducts that penetrate fire barriers and where the duct is also used as part of a smoke control system, the system designer shall ascertain which type of fire damper is appropriate for the application. Fire dampers for dynamic systems are evaluated only for dynamic closure under heated airflow conditions. Combination fire and smoke dampers and corridor dampers that have an elevated temperature rating are evaluated for dynamic closure under heated airflow conditions and they are also evaluated to operate under heated air conditions.
Tests conducted in accordance with these requirements are intended to demonstrate the performance of fire dampers during the period of fire test exposure and are not intended to determine acceptability of fire dampers for use after exposure to fire.
It is the intent that tests conducted in accordance with the test methods described herein develop data to enable regulatory authorities to determine the acceptability of fire damper assemblies for use in locations where fire resistance of a specified duration is required.
Fire dampers are intended to close automatically upon the detection of heat by the use of a fusible link or other heat responsive device.
These requirements do not cover:
a) Performance of the fire damper assembly in walls, partitions, or floors constructed of materials other than those tested.
b) The performance of the fire damper assembly when installed using methods other than those fire tested.
c) Measurement of heat transmission through a fire damper assembly.
d) Measurement of the degree of control or limitation of the passage of smoke or products of combustion through the fire damper assembly.