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IEEE 998 1996 Edition, December 20, 1996
Complete Document
Guide for Direct Lightning Stroke Shielding of Substations
Includes all amendments and changes through Reaffirmation Notice , March 20, 2002
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The scope of this guide is the identifcation and discussion of design procedures to provide direct stroke shielding of outdoor distribution, transmission, and generating plant substations. All known methods of shielding from direct strokes were investigated during the preparation of this guide, and information is provided on two methods found to be widely used:

a) The classical empirical method

b) The electrogeometric model

A third approach, which involves the use of active lightning terminals, is briefly reviewed in clause 6.

This guide does not purport to include all shielding methods that may have been developed. The guide also does not address protection from surges entering a substation over power or communication lines or the personnel safety issues.

Users of this guide should thoroughly acquaint themselves with all factors that relate to the design of a particular installation and use good engineering judgment in the application of the methods given here, particularly with respect to the importance and value of the equipment being protected.