This guide presents general considerations for application of engineering controls to facilitate continued use or redevelopment of properties containing chemical-affected soil, groundwater, or other environmental media, due either to chemical releases or naturally-occurring conditions. This guide is not meant to be prescriptive but rather to present considerations for evaluating technologies capable of addressing potential human exposures associated with chemical-affected environmental media.
Table 1 lists the considerations that should be taken into account when developing an engineering control in accordance with this guide.
This guide is intended for use by real estate developers, civil/structural designers, environmental regulators, industrial parties, environmental consultants, and other persons concerned with residential, commercial, or industrial development of real properties where chemical-affected environmental media are present. The design process should involve the individuals and firms working on various aspects of the specifications for construction, operation, and maintenance. If the site is located on public property, then public participation should be considered during the design process.
This guide is directed toward properties where chemical-affected environmental media, associated with either human-influenced activities or naturally-occurring conditions, will remain in place and where active or passive engineering controls will be used to reduce or eliminate exposures that may otherwise pose an unacceptable risk to property users.
This guide identifies the exposure concerns associated with chemical-affected properties that may affect the property development plan, both in the construction phase and during the proposed use of the property; defines performance standards for control of applicable exposure pathways; and, for each exposure pathway, provides examples of engineering controls that may be applied for new or existing construction.
This guide will assist in identification of the optimal property development plan for a property with chemical-affected environmental media. Such a plan will address both short-term construction issues and long-term exposures of property users.
This guide does not address the broader range of environmental concerns that are not directly affected by construction measures and engineering controls (e.g., protection of water resources or ecological receptors).
Detailed specifications for site-specific application of engineering controls are not addressed in this guide. The user is referred to other related ASTM standards and technical guidelines regarding the implementation of the site evaluation and corrective action process, as well as the detailed design, installation, operation, and maintenance of these engineering controls.
The overall strategy for addressing unacceptable risks may employ either remedial actions or activity and use limitations, or both. Engineering controls are a subset of remedial actions given that (1) remedial actions involve cutting off the exposure pathway or reducing the concentration of COCs, or both and (2) that engineering controls only involve cutting off the exposure pathway. Engineering controls are briefly described in Guide E 2091, which describes a broad range of options for managing risk. This guide covers implementation of engineering controls in a detailed manner, thereby providing a needed complement to the information provided in Guide E 2091.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.